Măsurile de prevenire și control a infecției cu Coronavirus de tip nou (2019-nCoV)

Prevention and control measures of Coronavirus infection

Published: 26.02.2020

The epidemiological situation regarding the coronavirus infection (COVID-19)

Since 31 December 2019 and as of 19 October 2020, 40 106 965 cases of COVID-19 (in accordance with the applied case definitions and testing strategies in the affected countries) have been reported, including 1 114 636 deaths.

https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/geographical-distribution-2019-ncov-cases

Cases have been reported from:

Africa: 1 646 862 cases; the five countries reporting most cases are South Africa (703 793), Morocco (173 632), Egypt (105 424), Ethiopia (89 137) and Nigeria (61 440).

Asia: 12 437 324 cases; the five countries reporting most cases are India (7 550 273), Iran (530 380), Iraq (426 634), Bangladesh (388 569) and Indonesia (361 867).

America: 18 866 794 cases; the five countries reporting most cases are United States (8 154 595), Brazil (5 235 344), Argentina (989 667), Colombia (959 572) and Peru (868 675).

Europe: 7 118 168 cases; the five countries reporting most cases are Russia (1 399 334), Spain (936 560), France (897 034), United Kingdom (722 409) and Italy (414 241).

Oceania: 37 121 cases; the five countries reporting most cases are Australia (27 390), French Polynesia (3 797), Guam (3 675), New Zealand (1 530) and Papua New Guinea (581).

Other: 696 cases have been reported from an international conveyance in Japan.

Deaths have been reported from:

Africa: 39 741 deaths; the five countries reporting most deaths are South Africa (18 471), Egypt (6 120), Morocco (2 928), Algeria (1 856) and Ethiopia (1 352).

Asia: 222 596 deaths; the five countries reporting most deaths are India (114 610), Iran (30 375), Indonesia (12 511), Iraq (10 254) and Turkey (9 296).

America: 609 981 deaths; the five countries reporting most deaths are United States (219 674), Brazil (153 905), Mexico (86 167), Peru (33 759) and Colombia (28 970).

Europe: 241 291 deaths; the five countries reporting most deaths are United Kingdom (43 646), Italy (36 543), Spain (33 775), France (33 477) and Russia (24 187).

Oceania: 1 020 deaths; the five countries reporting most deaths are Australia (904), Guam (66), New Zealand (25), French Polynesia (14) and Papua New Guinea (7).

Other: 7 deaths have been reported from an international conveyance in Japan.

What are the symptoms of COVID-19?

The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, tiredness, and dry cough. Some patients may have aches and pains, nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat or diarrhea. These symptoms are usually mild and begin gradually. Some people become infected but don’t develop any symptoms and don't feel unwell. Most people (about 80%) recover from the disease without needing special treatment. Around 1 out of every 6 people who gets COVID-19 becomes seriously ill and develops difficulty breathing. Older people, and those with underlying medical problems like high blood pressure, heart problems or diabetes, are more likely to develop serious illness. About 2% of people with the disease have died. People with fever, cough and difficulty breathing should seek medical attention.

How does COVID-19 spread?

People can catch COVID-19 from others who have the virus. The disease can spread from person to person through small droplets from the nose or mouth which are spread when a person with COVID-19 coughs or exhales. These droplets land on objects and surfaces around the person. Other people then catch COVID-19 by touching these objects or surfaces, then touching their eyes, nose or mouth. People can also catch COVID-19 if they breathe in droplets from a person with COVID-19 who coughs out or exhales droplets. This is why it is important to stay more than 1 meter (3 feet) away from a person who is sick.

WHO is assessing ongoing research on the ways COVID-19 is spread and will continue to share updated findings.    

Can the virus that causes COVID-19 be transmitted through the air?

Studies to date suggest that the virus that causes COVID-19 is mainly transmitted through contact with respiratory droplets rather than through the air.  See previous answer on “How does COVID-19 spread?”

Can CoVID-19 be caught from a person who has no symptoms?

The main way the disease spreads is through respiratory droplets expelled by someone who is coughing. The risk of catching COVID-19 from someone with no symptoms at all is very low. However, many people with COVID-19 experience only mild symptoms. This is particularly true at the early stages of the disease. It is therefore possible to catch COVID-19 from someone who has, for example, just a mild cough and does not feel ill.  WHO is assessing ongoing research on the period of transmission of COVID-19 and will continue to share updated findings.    

Can I catch COVID-19 from the feces of someone with the disease?

The risk of catching COVID-19 from the feces of an infected person appears to be low. While initial investigations suggest the virus may be present in feces in some cases, spread through this route is not a main feature of the outbreak. WHO is assessing ongoing research on the ways COVID-19 is spread and will continue to share new findings. Because this is a risk, however, it is another reason to clean hands regularly, after using the bathroom and before eating. 

What can I do to protect myself and prevent the spread of disease?

Protection measures for everyone

masuri de protectie coronaStay aware of the latest information on the COVID-19 outbreak, available on the WHO website and through your national and local public health authority. COVID-19 is still affecting mostly people in China with some outbreaks in other countries. Most people who become infected experience mild illness and recover, but it can be more severe for others. Take care of your health and protect others by doing the following:

Protection measures for persons who are in or have recently visited (past 14 days) areas where COVID-19 is spreading

How likely am I to catch COVID-19?

The risk depends on where you live or where you have travelled recently. The risk of infection is higher in areas where a number people have been diagnosed with COVID-19. More than 95% of all COVID-19 cases are occurring in China, with the majority of those in Hubei Province. For people in most other parts of the world, your risk of getting COVID-19 is currently low, however, it’s important to be aware of the situation and preparedness efforts in your area.

WHO is working with health authorities in China and around the world to monitor and respond to COVID-19 outbreaks. 

Should I worry about COVID-19?

If you are not in an area where COVID-19 is spreading, or if you have not travelled from one of those areas or have not been in close contact with someone who has and is feeling unwell, your chances of getting it are currently low. However, it’s understandable that you may feel stressed and anxious about the situation. It’s a good idea to get the facts to help you accurately determine your risks so that you can take reasonable precautions. Your healthcare provider, your national public health authority and your employer are all potential sources of accurate information on COVID-19 and whether it is in your area. It is important to be informed of the situation where you live and take appropriate measures to protect yourself. (See Protection measures for everyone).

If you are in an area where there is an outbreak of COVID-19 you need to take the risk of infection seriously. Follow the advice issued by national and local health authorities. Although for most people COVID-19 causes only mild illness, it can make some people very ill. More rarely, the disease can be fatal. Older people, and those with pre-existing medical conditions (such as high blood pressure, heart problems or diabetes) appear to be more vulnerable. 

Who is at risk of developing severe illness?

While we are still learning about how COVID-2019 affects people, older persons and persons with pre-existing medical conditions (such as high blood pressure, heart disease, or diabetes) appear to develop serious illness more often than others. 

Are antibiotics effective in preventing or treating the COVID-19?

antibioticeNo. Antibiotics do not work against viruses, they only work on bacterial infections. COVID-19 is caused by a virus, so antibiotics do not work. Antibiotics should not be used as a means of prevention or treatment of COVID-19. They should only be used as directed by a physician to treat a bacterial infection. 

Is there a vaccine, drug or treatment for COVID-19?

Not yet. To date, there is no vaccine and no specific antiviral medicine to prevent or treat COVID-2019. However, those affected should receive care to relieve symptoms. People with serious illness should be hospitalized. Most patients recover thanks to supportive care.

Possible vaccines and some specific drug treatments are under investigation. They are being tested through clinical trials. WHO is coordinating efforts to develop vaccines and medicines to prevent and treat COVID-19.

The most effective ways to protect yourself and others against COVID-19 are to frequently clean your hands, cover your cough with the bend of elbow or tissue, and maintain a distance of at least 1 meter (3 feet) from people who are coughing or sneezing. For more information, see basic protective measures against the new coronavirus.

Is COVID-19 the same as SARS?

No. The virus that causes COVID-19 and the one that causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) are related to each other genetically, but they are different. SARS is more deadly but much less infectious than COVID-19. There have been no outbreaks of SARS anywhere in the world since 2003.

Should I wear a mask to protect myself?

People with no respiratory symptoms, such as cough, do not need to wear a medical mask. WHO recommends the use of masks for people who have symptoms of COVID-19 and for those caring for individuals who have symptoms, such as cough and fever. The use of masks is crucial for health workers and people who are taking care of someone (at home or in a health care facility).

WHO advises rational use of medical masks to avoid unnecessary wastage of precious resources and mis-use of masks. Use a mask only if you have respiratory symptoms (coughing or sneezing), have suspected COVID-19 infection with mild symptoms, or are caring for someone with suspected COVID-19 infection. A suspected COVID-19 infection is linked to travel in areas where cases have been reported, or close contact with someone who has travelled in these areas and has become ill.

The most effective ways to protect yourself and others against COVID-19 are to frequently clean your hands, cover your cough with the bend of elbow or tissue and maintain a distance of at least 1 meter (3 feet) from people who are coughing or sneezing. For more information, see basic protective measures against the new coronavirus.

How to put on, use, take off and dispose of a mask?

How long is the incubation period for COVID-19?

The “incubation period” means the time between catching the virus and beginning to have symptoms of the disease. Most estimates of the incubation period for COVID-19 range from 1-14 days, most commonly around five days. These estimates will be updated as more data become available.

Can humans become infected with the COVID-19 from an animal source?

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in animals. Rarely, people get infected with these viruses which may then spread to other people. For example, SARS-CoV was associated with civet cats and MERS-CoV is transmitted by dromedary camels. Possible animal sources of COVID-19 have not yet been confirmed. 

To protect yourself, such as when visiting live animal markets, avoid direct contact with animals and surfaces in contact with animals. Ensure good food safety practices at all times. Handle raw meat, milk or animal organs with care to avoid contamination of uncooked foods and avoid consuming raw or undercooked animal products.

Can I catch COVID-19 from my pet?

animale de companieNo. There is no evidence that companion animals or pets such as cats and dogs have been infected or could spread the virus that causes COVID-19.

How long does the virus survive on surfaces?

It is not certain how long the virus that causes COVID-19 survives on surfaces, but it seems to behave like other coronaviruses. Studies suggest that coronaviruses (including preliminary information on the COVID-19 virus) may persist on surfaces for a few hours or up to several days. This may vary under different conditions (e.g. type of surface, temperature or humidity of the environment).

If you think a surface may be infected, clean it with simple disinfectant to kill the virus and protect yourself and others. Clean your hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water. Avoid touching your eyes, mouth, or nose.

Is it safe to receive a package from any area where COVID-19 has been reported?

scrisoriYes. The likelihood of an infected person contaminating commercial goods is low and the risk of catching the virus that causes COVID-19 from a package that has been moved, travelled, and exposed to different conditions and temperature is also low. 

Is there anything I should not do?

The following measures ARE NOT effective against COVID-2019 and can be harmful:

In any case, if you have fever, cough and difficulty breathing seek medical care early to reduce the risk of developing a more severe infection and be sure to share your recent travel history with your health care provider.

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